SCHOOL CRONICLE 2002/1
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SCHOOL CHRONICLE - MISCELLANY FOR THE HISTORY OF SCHOOLING AND EDUCATION - BULLETIN OF THE SLOVENIAN SCHOOL MUSEUM, LJUBLJANA
Uredniški odbor / Editorial Board: Marjetka Balkovec Debevec (odgovorna urednica / Editor-in-Charge), dr. Teodor Domej (Avstrija / Austria), dr. Darko Friš, Ksenija Guzej (tehnicna urednica / Tehnical Editor), Tatjana Hojan (lektorica / Proofreading), dr. Zdenko Medveš, mag. Stane Okoliš, Slavica Pavlic, dr. Mojca Pecek Cuk, dr. Leopoldina Plut Pregelj (ZDA / USA), Mateja Ribaric, mag. Branko Šuštar (odgovorna oseba izdajatelja / Responsible person of the publisher), mag. Mladen Tancer, dr. Andrej Vovko.
The articles have been reviewed by the Editorial Board. The authors are solely responsible for the content of their articles. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the publisher's prior consent and a full mention of the source.
Slovenski šolski muzej / Slovenian School Museum, Ljubljana
The editing of this issue was completed on 15 August 2002.
Prevodi / Translation: Veronika Pušnik (anglešcina / English),
Marinka Krenker (nemšcina / German)
Vnos besedil / Typesetting: Maja Košcak
Lektoriranje / Language-editing: Murray Bales (anglešcina / English)
UDK / UDC: Martin Grum
Uredništvo in uprava / Editorial and administrative office: Slovenski šolski muzej, Plecnikov trg 1,
SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenija;
telefon, fax / Phone, Fax: ++386 01 25 13 024
Transakcijski racun / Bank account: 01100-6030720893
Sofinancirajo / Co-financed by: Ministrstvo za šolstvo, znanost in šport R Slovenije /
The Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of the Republic
of Slovenia; Ministrstvo za kulturo / The Ministry of
Culture, Mestna obcina Ljubljana, Oddelek za kulturno
in raziskovalno dejevnost / City of Ljubljana, Department
of Culture and Research
Izdajatelj / Publisher: Slovenski šolski muzej / Slovenian School Museum
Oblikovanje naslovnice / Cover design: Sloway
Oblikovanje in racunalniški prelom /
Design and computer typesetting: Uroš Cuden, Medit d.o.o.
Tisk / Printed by: Littera picta d.o.o., Ljubljana, 2001
Naklada / Number of copies: 800 izvodov
Revija je vpisana v razvid medijev pri Ministrstvu za kulturo Republike Slovenije pod zaporedno številko 43, z dne 14. 2. 2002.
ZBORNIK ZA ZGODOVINO ŠOLSTVA IN VZGOJE
Glasilo Slovenskega šolskega muzeja, Ljubljana
Leto 2002 - številka 1
Letnik 11 - XXXV
The Miscellany for the History of Schooling and Education. Bulletin of the Slovenian School Museum. Ljubljana. Slovenia.
ARTICLES AND DISCUSSIONS
Maja Žvanut: Educational ideals in the 17th century…7-14
Zoran Radonjic: The Second World War in Slovenian history textbooks…15-34
Vanda Trdan: Schools in the Kocevje region from the first half of the 19th century
to the end of WWI…35-60
Stanislav Južnic: The life and work of the philologist Rudolf Južnic (1883-1955)...61-78
CONTRIBUTIONS AND MATERIALS
Marija Jasna Kogoj: The Ursulines in Ljubljana, 1702-2002 …79-89
Tatjana Hojan: Uciteljski tovariš, the successor of Šolski prijatelj …90-97
Tatjana Hojan: What did Uciteljski tovariš recommend for school libraries in 1876?…98-106
Jasna Županic: The trails of schooling and the Secondary School of Trade and Economics…107-114
REMINISCENCES OF SCHOOLING
Zlata Volaric: Then and now…115-116
Janez Švajncer: The test…117-119
Slavica Pavlic: School anniversaries in 2003…121-125
Janez Kavcic: The 100th anniversary of the realka in Idrija…126-134
Stanislav Senekovic: Jože Hudales (1937-1997): teacher, writer, sculptor and painter …135-140
Branko Šuštar: Activity report of the Slovenian School Museum for the year 2001 …141-164
Tatjana Dekleva: The exhibition “University of Ljubljana and its Rectors”…165-168
BITS AND PIECES FROM THE SCHOOL PAST TIMES
From old periodicals for teachers
(Tatjana Hojan) “Mojškra” - Seamstress …169-170
(Marjetka Balkovec Debevec) School festivities…171-172
Šolske proslave: School celebrations: 100 years of the Majšprek Primary School…173-184
REPORTS AND REVIEWS
Kristina Šamperl Purg: Razmerje med mestom in vasjo kot problem slovenskega narodnega gibanja na primeru Ptuja in okolice pred prvo svetovno vojno
(nekateri vidiki) (Branko Šuštar) …185-186
Katarina Lenarcic: 90 let šolstva na Drenovem Gricu.
OŠ Log - Dragomer (Tatjana Hojan) …186-187
Sonja Vodopivec (ur.): 160 let šole v Zagorju: 1842-2002 (Tatjana Hojan) …188
180 let OŠ Vinica (Marjetka Balkovec Debevec) …189-190
Irene Žele: Iz šole v življenje (Francek Lasbaher) …190-192
190 let šolstva in 25 let šole v Leskovcu pri Krškem (Francek Lasbaher) …192-195
Histoire de l’Education 2001 (Andrej Vovko) …195-196
Instructions to contributors …197
Educational ideals in the 17th century
The article depicts educational ideals of the 17th century, the period of Catholic renewal, and presents in greater detail the domestic educational book Speculum Generosae Juventutis, which was addressed to young nobility in the provinces of Carniola, Styria and Carinthia. It also touches on the book Orbis pictus sensualium dedicated to all children and adapted according to their own needs by many European nations. At the beginning of the 18th century, Orbis pictus was translated into Slovenian, but unfortunately it only remained at the level of a manuscript.
World War II in Slovenian History Textbooks
The article provides an analysis of the basic concepts and topics contained in various chapters of 15 primary and secondary school textbooks in the 1948-1999 period (in the foreground are textbooks from the period of socialist Yugoslavia) dealing with WW II in Slovenia and Yugoslavia. For nearly half a century, school history classes merely served as a tool for the Communist Party history. It is no surprise then that the books are tendentious, one-sided and biased. A table at the end of the article provides an insight into some of the main characteristics of these textbooks and a comparison.
Schools in the Kocevje region from the first half of the 19th century to the end of WWI
This article is part of the author’s M.A. thesis (Faculty of Arts, Department of History, Ljubljana, 1999). The thesis looks into the status of schools in the Kocevje region in the 1850- 1918 period, a time marked by growing nationalism. This was most pronounced in regions with mixed ethnic structures, including the Kocevje region. Among others, conflicts between the German and the Slovenian camps were reflected in education policies. The largest portion of archive materials is stored at the Slovenian School Museum (documentary collections of primary schools and a register of primary schools) and the Ljubljana Historical Archives (materials from the grammar school in Kocevje and from a few other schools).
The life and work of the philologist Rudolf Južnic (1883-1955)
The article deals with life and work of an important Slovene linguist and polyglot, Rudolf Južnic. Based on a range of new archive materials, the paper describes the exceptional career of a person who, despite being born in a poor environment, became one of the most notable Slovenian educationalists and authors of text books. Included is a bibliography of his papers, both published as well as unpublished. They are again gaining on importance because Južnic’ contribution to Wiesthaler’s Latin-Slovenian dictionary will be published shortly.
The Ursulines in Ljubljana, 1702-2002
Marija Jasna Kogoj
In 2002, the order of Ursulines celebrated 300 years of their presence in the capital of Slovenia. They marked this important jubilee with a number of events, the most remarkable being the opening of a nursery school which they named the Angela Nursery School after the founder of the Ursuline order. The Ursulines also organised an international conference and an exhibition "The Ursulines in Ljubljana between 1702 and 2002", and offered a rich cultural programme.
The order of St. Ursula, or in short the Ursuline order, was founded in 1535 by St. Angela Merici in Brescia, Italy. The most important goal of the Ursuline apostolate was to raise and educate a young person’s body, soul and spirit. In the 17th century, Ursuline cloisters spread rapidly across Europe because of the high quality of their schools and the excellent Christian education provided to young women. In 1660, Empress Eleonore called the Ursulines from Liege to Vienna. In the territories populated by Slovenians, the Ursulines first arrived in Klagenfurt in 1670, in Gorizia in 1672 and in Ljubljana in 1702, where they opened the first public school for girls as early as the following year. The Ursuline school was divided into a boarding school and a school for external students. It comprised an elementary school, secondary school and later a grammar school, a private teachers’ training college, a nursery school and three housekeeping schools, all of which were dissolved in 1945. Part of the former buildings of the Ursuline schools is today home to the Slovenian School Museum.
Uciteljski tovariš, the successor of Šolski prijatelj
The years 2001 and 2002 mark three major anniversaries of teachers’ periodicals. It is now 150 years since the journal Šolski prijatelj (School Friend) was first published in Klagenfurt, and 130 years since the first copy of Slovenski ucitelj (The Slovenian Teacher) appeared in Ljutomer. The year 2001 marked 130 years since Uciteljski tovariš (The Teacher’s Friend) was first published.
Šolski prijatelj was edited by Andrej Einspieler, a priest and politician. Uciteljski tovariš was edited by Andrej Praprotnik, and Slovenski ucitelj by the teacher Ivan Lapajne. The three editors were also the most productive contributors to these journals. Nearly one-half of the journal Šolski prijatelj consisted of belletrism, while Uciteljski tovariš included a much smaller proportion of belletrism, while Slovenski ucitelj had none at all. The three periodicals share a common feature, namely that they published serial papers.
The editor of Uciteljski tovariš, Andrej Praprotnik, was very devoted to co-operating with Šolski prijatelj and Ivan Lapajne, who later became editor of Slovenski ucitelj, contributed to Uciteljski tovariš.
The contributors to Šolski prijatelj Josip Levicnik, Jože Eržen, Janez Cetelj, Leopold Belar, Josip Raktelj and the brothers Ljudevit and Ivan Tomšic also wrote for Uciteljski tovariš. Ljudevit Tomšic contributed to all three journals.
The editors of the first three teachers’ journals were among the most active pedagogues of their time. In addition to being editors and writers, they were actively involved in teachers’ associations. They also solicited many other contributors and encouraged them to start writing.
What did Uciteljski tovariš recommend for school libraries in 1876?
In 1876, a special section entitled “The Students’ Library” regularly appeared in the Uciteljski tovariš (The Teacher’s Friend) journal. In the introduction, its author Ivan Tomšic extensively explained the reasons for its existence. In May 1875, a special decree was issued requiring the establishment of school libraries at which school children would have access to appropriate books. According to this decree, teachers would have to read and approve every book prior to its inclusion in the library. The editorial board of Uciteljski tovariš sought to help teachers by publishing lists of appropriate books accompanied by short reviews. The lists were published in the 12 issues of 1876 and covered 67 literary works. Two-thirds of the titles were belletristic, while one-third covered reference books in various professional fields, school textbooks and manuals. About one-half of the literature books were translations from German, Italian and English. The majority was printed in Ljubljana, while only a few were produced in Gorizia, Klagenfurt and Vienna. The main criteria for recommending a book to school libraries was their instructive and educational contents. The journal especially recommended all translations of the German author Christoph Schmid who wrote for youth. Some books were mentioned, despite their inappropriateness for libraries, just to show how their titles could be misleading. In addition to book reviews, recommendations encompassed what types of books should be purchased, for instance collections of riddles, books of proverbs and history books.
The trails of schooling and the Secondary School of Trade and Economics in Brežice
The article reviews the development of primary and secondary schools in Brežice. It was written to mark an important event, i.e. the moving of the Secondary Schoool of Trade and Economics to a new building. The main focus is on the school of trade, which was renamed several times during the last century. On the basis of documents taken from the school’s archives, all titles and buildings of the school are listed. Owing to the shortage of space, the school had to change its location a few times. Although the merchant profession had always been a very attractive occupation, changing interests at the end of the 1970s called for the establishment of a school of economics. Today, interest in economics is much greater than that for the typical Brežice occupation of a merchant.
The 100th anniversary of the realka in Idrija
Established in 1952, the Jurij Vega Secondary School in Idrija followed on from the first realka (secondary school of science and technology) in Slovenia which had operated in Idrija between 1901 and 1926. A total of 400 students graduated from the former realka, while the adjacent gimnazija (grammar school) and other secondary schools educated nearly 4,000 students. The 100th anniversary of this noble predecessor of the current gimnazija was marked throughout 2001 with various activities and celebrations. A rich programme of professional and cultural events was carried out. The school published a comprehensive anthology (314 pages), the Post of Slovenia issued a special postage stamp, while the national television recorded a one-hour documentary film about the school. The Idrija gimnazija also incorporates a lace-making school, which celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2001.
Jože Hudales (1937-1997): teacher, writer, sculptor and painter
Jože Hudales was born on 6 April 1937 in Celje. His parents were teachers in the village of Žaga na Tolminskem, from where they were deported after the First World War. In 1958, Jože Hudales graduated from the Teachers' Training College in Maribor. He took on his first job as a teacher at the primary school in Prevalje and then in Šmarje na Primorskem. In 1965, he took up employment at the primary school in Jurovski Dol, where he worked up until retirement. He died in 1997 after a short disease and was buried in Pobrežje in Maribor.
Just before retiring he was highly awarded for his many years of working as a teacher. He spent most of his free time pursuing the fine arts. Most of all, he liked working with stone; he knew how to give it soul and draw out a diverse range of expressive possibilities. He was also a painter. His works were presented at numerous exhibitions in the cultural capitals of Europe.
Of his artistic activities, the most prominent was his literary work. Already as a secondary school student, he wrote for several journals. At the 100-year anniversary of the birth of Rudolf Maister he published his first novel, Orel z razprtimi krili (The Eagle with Its Wings Extended - 1974), which was dedicated to this man who had fought for the northern border of Slovenia. His second novel, General, followed in 1981, describing decisive events in 1918 and 1919 in the north-eastern part of Slovenia. Jože Hudales provided an invaluable contribution to our knowledge of Rudolf Maister as a person and to our knowledge of the decisive events at the end of WWI.